Network Core Mechanisms of Exponence

Givón, Talmy (1979)


In this article Givón suggests that the forms of speech are to be seen as being located on clines and as shifting between poles, such as child/adult, creole/standard, unplanned/planned, pragmatic/syntactic. In each pair, the first is “loose” and the second “fixed” or “tight”, and according to Givón change generally has to take place in the direction of the tighter pole. The cline he proposes to explain the emergence of morphology is the following: discourse > syntax > morphology > morphophonemics > zero (Givón 1979: 109).

authorGivón, Talmy
titleFrom discourse to syntax: Grammar as a processing strategy
editorGivón, Talmy
booktitleSyntax and Semantics
volume1, Discourse and Syntax
addressNew York
publisherAcademic Press


    author = {Givón, Talmy},
    year = {1979},
    title = {From discourse to syntax: Grammar as a processing strategy},
    booktitle = {Syntax and Semantics},
    editor = {Givón, Talmy},
    volume = {1, Discourse and Syntax},
    address = {New York},
    publisher = {Academic Press},
    pages = {81-112},
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